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                                                                                                                                              首頁 > 技術與支持 > 體外模擬胃腸道是研究腸道菌群的重要手段
                                                                                                                                              體外模擬胃腸道是研究腸道菌群的重要手段
                                                                                                                                              點擊次數:368 發布時間:2022-01-06
                                                                                                                                                隨著分子微生態學,特別是高通量測序技術的發展,人類對腸道微生物的作用有了新的突破性認識。我們現在了解到人體和動物消化道系統中生長著大量的細菌,腸道中細菌的總數量甚至高出人體細胞總數的十倍。腸道微生物的菌群多樣性受到多種因素的影響其中環境和宿主的遺傳背景在決定腸道菌群結構和組成方面各自起到50%的作用。而且由于外部環境在腸道菌群結構形成過程中的巨大影響,個體之間腸道菌群結構和組成極為不同。目前的研究證明只有極少數的細菌存在于大多數人的腸道中,而個人之間菌群結構的不同反過來又直接影響到宿主的免疫系統發育和營養物質的吸收,甚至和自身免疫性疾病的產生相關。腸道微生物現在認為是人體的一個新“器官”而腸道微生物生態的研究近十年來也受到了廣泛的重視。但是腸道微生物研究存在的重要的瓶頸在于樣品的采集。對正常人來說,除了收集糞便之外,小腸,升結腸,橫結腸等部位的取樣幾乎不現實。另一方面,由于腸道細菌受到外部環境和宿主腸道環境的雙重影響,如何區分外部環境和腸道內環境對腸道菌群的作用變得十分重要所以,建立臺理而易操作的體外模型對推動腸道微生態學、人體和動物營養學的發展非堂有意義。
                                                                                                                                                腸道微生物能夠增強機體免疫力,改善腹瀉。腸道是腸道微生物賴以生存的環境,腸道微生物的含量占整個人體微生物含量的78%,是臨床研究的重點。
                                                                                                                                                能夠影響腸道微生物的因素主要有4個方面:①人體自身的因素;②人體攝入的飲食;③細菌自身因素;④腸道微生物之間的相互作用。而腸道微生物的相互作用最為主要、復雜,為科研研究的重點,為了研究腸道微生物,我們引入了腸道微生物模擬系統。體外腸道模擬系統是基于對人體體內消化道的仿生模擬而建立,用來培養單種或多種微生物的培養系統。
                                                                                                                                                腸道微生物對人體消化、營養、免疫等生理功能的調節起重要作用,腸道菌群失調會阻礙腸道蠕動進而影響食物消化和營養吸收,還會引起炎癥性腸病、肥胖和糖尿病等多種疾病。如今腸道微生物被喻為“人體不可忽視的重要器官”,人們對其的研究方法逐漸完善,為了更加深入的了解腸道菌群的結構和功能,體外模擬胃腸道逐漸成為一種重要的研究手段。
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