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                                                                                                                                              首頁 > 技術與支持 > 消化系統根據其不同結構可以分為以下2種類型
                                                                                                                                              消化系統根據其不同結構可以分為以下2種類型
                                                                                                                                              點擊次數:322 發布時間:2021-10-26
                                                                                                                                                飼料中的營養成分,除水、礦物質和維生素可被機體直接吸收利用外,碳水化合物、蛋白質和脂肪都是較復雜的大分子有機物,不能直接吸收,必須在消化道內經過物理的、化學的和微生物的消化,分解成為簡單的小分子物質,才能被機體吸收利用。飼料在消化道內的這種分解過程叫消化。飼料經過消化后,營養物質通過消化道黏膜上皮細胞進入血液循環的過程叫吸收。
                                                                                                                                                一、消化系統的結構
                                                                                                                                                消化系統由消化道和消化腺兩部分組成。消化道為飼料通過的管道,起始于口腔,經咽、食管、胃、小腸、大腸。消化腺是分泌消化液的腺體。包括唾腺,肝、胰、胃腺和腸腺等。
                                                                                                                                                消化系統根據其不同結構可以分為以下2種類型:
                                                                                                                                                1.單胃類包括單胃肉食類、單胃雜食類和單胃草食類。
                                                                                                                                                2.禽類
                                                                                                                                                二、動物對飼料的消化方式
                                                                                                                                                動物按其采食習性可分為肉食類,如狗、貓等;雜食類,如家禽、豬等;草食類,如牛、馬、羊、兔等。它們消化道的構造和功能均有差異,但是它們對飼料中各種營養物質的消化卻具有許多共同的規律,其消化方式主要歸納為物理性消化、化學性消化和微生物消化。
                                                                                                                                                1、物理性消化
                                                                                                                                                口腔中的物理性消化。動物口腔內飼料的消化主要是物理性消化。它主要靠動物的咀嚼器官——牙齒和消化道管壁的肌肉運動把食物壓扁、撕碎、磨爛,增加食物的表面積,使其易與消化液充分混合,并把食糜從消化道的一個部位運送到消化道的另一個部位。
                                                                                                                                                家禽口腔內沒有牙齒,靠喙采食飼料。喙也能撕碎大塊食物。鴨和鵝為扁平狀的喙,邊緣粗糙面具有很多小型的角質齒,也有切斷飼料的功能。飼料與口腔內分泌的黏液混合,再吞咽入胃進行酶的消化。豬口腔內牙齒對飼料的咀嚼比較細致,咀嚼時間長短與飼料的柔軟程度和豬的年齡有關。一般粗硬的飼料咀嚼時間長,隨豬年齡的增加,咀嚼時間相應縮短。
                                                                                                                                                非反芻草食動物,馬主要靠上唇和門齒采食飼料,靠臼齒磨碎飼料,咀嚼比豬更細致。咀嚼時間愈多,飼料的潤濕、膨脹、松軟愈好,愈有利于胃內繼續消化。草食性的家兔,靠門齒切斷飼料,臼齒磨碎飼料,并與唾液充分混合而吞咽。該類動物的飼料飼喂前適當切短,有助于動物采食和牙齒磨碎。
                                                                                                                                                反芻動物采食飼料后,不經充分咀嚼就吞咽到瘤冒。飼抖在瘤胃受水分及唾液的浸潤被軟化,休息時再返回口腔仔細咀嚼。這是反芻動物特有的反芻現象,也是飼料在口腔內進行的物理性消化。經反芻后的食糜,顆粒很細,有利于微生物的進一步消化。
                                                                                                                                                胃腸內物理性消化飼料在動物胃、腸內的物理性消化,主要靠管壁肌肉的收縮,對食糜進行研磨和攪拌。家禽靠肌胃壁強有力的收縮磨碎食物,雞飼料中有少許砂石,更有利于肌胃機械性的磨碎飼料。
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